In general, service organizations will undergo annual SOC 2 (Service Organization Controls 2) audit reports based on the Trust Services Principles (Trust Services Criteria). The SOC reports typically begin with a SOC 2 Type 1 report in the first year followed by SOC 2 Type 2 (Soc 2 Type ii) reports in subsequent years. Each one ensures you have the appropriate internal controls in place as a deterrent to cyber threats.

What is the AICPA and why does it matter in SOC 2? 

The AICPA (American Institute of Certified Public Accountants) is a professional organization in the United States that represents certified public accountants (CPAs) and provides guidance, standards, and support to the accounting profession. The AICPA is responsible for establishing and maintaining auditing and accounting standards used in the U.S., and it also offers various professional certifications and credentials for accountants.

In the context of SOC 2 (System and Organization Controls 2) reports, the AICPA plays a significant role because it is the organization that develops and maintains the SOC framework and issues final reports. SOC 2 reports are used by organizations to assess and communicate the effectiveness of their controls related to the five Trust Service Principles: security, availability, processing integrity, confidentiality, and privacy. These reports are typically issued by independent auditors or CPA firms who follow the AICPA‘s SOC 2 auditing standards.

The AICPA’s involvement in SOC 2 matters for several reasons:

  •   Framework Development: The AICPA developed the SOC framework, including SOC 2, to provide a consistent and standardized way for organizations to evaluate and report on their control environments. This framework is widely recognized and trusted in the industry.
  •   Standard Setting: The AICPA establishes the auditing and attestation standards that CPAs must follow when performing SOC 2 audits. This ensures a level of consistency and quality among assessors in SOC 2 reporting.
  •   Guidance and Resources: The AICPA provides guidance and resources for CPA firms, auditors, and organizations seeking to create or obtain SOC 2 reports. This includes the AICPA‘s SOC 2 guide and various tools and templates.
  •   Credibility: SOC 2 reports issued by CPAs who follow AICPA standards carry a high degree of credibility and trust in the business world. Organizations that undergo SOC 2 audits often choose AICPA-accredited CPA firms to perform the assessments.

In summary, the AICPA is essential in the context of SOC 2 because it is the organization behind the framework, standards, and guidelines used in SOC 2 reporting. Its involvement helps ensure the quality and consistency of SOC 2 reports, making them valuable for organizations seeking to demonstrate their commitment to security and control over their systems and processes.

Why is SOC 2 compliance important?

SOC 2 compliance is important for a multitude of reasons. Firstly, it serves as a clear and tangible demonstration of an organization’s dedication to risk management, data security, and protection. In a world rife with cyber threats and data breaches, this commitment is essential to instilling trust among clients, partners, and stakeholders who rely on an organization’s services or products. SOC 2 compliance involves rigorous testing and assessment of security controls to help ensure sensitive data is well-protected.

Another compelling reason for SOC 2 compliance is its role in gaining a competitive advantage. Many businesses and clients require third-party service providers to be SOC 2 compliant before engaging in partnerships. This requirement reflects the growing emphasis on security and data protection and underscores the importance of SOC 2 as a differentiator in the marketplace. Organizations that can readily demonstrate their compliance are more likely to attract and retain valuable clients and partnerships.

Moreover, SOC 2 compliance offers a systematic approach to risk mitigation. The audit process identifies vulnerabilities and access control weaknesses within an organization’s systems and processes, allowing for proactive remediation. By addressing these issues before they escalate into security incidents, data breaches, or operational disruptions, organizations can effectively reduce risk and minimize the financial and reputational damage that such events can incur.

Notably, SOC 2 compliance extends its benefits to regulatory compliance. Many industries and sectors are subject to strict regulatory requirements concerning data protection and privacy. SOC 2 compliance can assist organizations in meeting these obligations by ensuring that their controls align with the relevant regulations. This alignment not only reduces the risk of non-compliance but also facilitates the process of regulatory reporting and auditing.

Furthermore, SOC 2 compliance can yield cost savings in the long run. Preventing security incidents, unauthorized access issues, and data breaches is far more economical than dealing with the aftermath of such events. The financial and reputational repercussions of a data breach can be severe, making the investment in SOC 2 compliance a prudent decision that helps mitigate the substantial costs associated with security incidents.

In addition to these financial and operational benefits, SOC 2 compliance enhances an organization’s brand reputation. Clients and customers are increasingly discerning about where they entrust their data, and organizations that prioritize data security and mitigating data breaches of sensitive information are more likely to be viewed favorably. A strong commitment to compliance can differentiate an organization in the eyes of potential clients and can lead to customer retention among those who value data protection.

FAQs for SOC 2 Reports

What is the minimum span of time for a SOC Type 2 Audit (Type II) report?

The minimum span of time for a SOC 2 Type 2 report is typically a period of six months. SOC 2 reports are designed to provide an assessment of an organization’s controls and their effectiveness over a specified period. A SOC 2 Type 2 report (type ii report) evaluates the controls and their operation over a minimum of six consecutive months, but it can cover a longer period, such as a year or more, depending on the organization’s needs and the requirements of the engagement.

The six-month minimum duration ensures that the auditors have sufficient time to evaluate the controls and their consistency over time. It allows them to assess whether the controls are operating effectively and meeting the specified criteria throughout that timeframe. This extended assessment period provides a more comprehensive view of an organization’s control environment compared to what a SOC 2 Type 1 (type i) report covers: effectiveness of controls and security framework protecting sensitive information at a specific period of time.

Are SOC 2 reports annual?

SOC 2 reports are not necessarily annual by default, although they are often issued annually. The timing and frequency of SOC 2 reports can vary based on the specific needs of the organization and its customers. SOC 2 reports can cover different periods depending on the requirements and expectations of the parties involved. Here are the two primary types of SOC 2 reports and their timing:

SOC 2 Type 1 Report: A SOC 2 Type 1 report provides an evaluation of an organization’s controls and their design at a specific point in time. This report is typically issued as of a specific date and does not cover a continuous period. It offers a snapshot of the controls in place at that moment and is not necessarily issued annually, although organizations may choose to update it annually or as requested by their clients.

SOC 2 Type 2 Report: A SOC 2 Type 2 report evaluates the effectiveness of an organization’s controls over a specified period, typically a minimum of six consecutive months. While it covers a longer duration, it can be issued annually or on a schedule agreed upon with clients or business partners. Many organizations opt for annual SOC 2 Type 2 assessments, which provide a comprehensive view of control and operating effectiveness for data security over a year. However, some may choose different reporting periods based on their specific needs and client requirements.

In practice, many organizations undergo SOC 2 assessments on an annual basis, aligning the issuance of Type 2 reports with their fiscal year or calendar year. This timing ensures that their clients and stakeholders receive regular updates on the effectiveness of their controls. Nevertheless, the exact frequency of SOC 2 reports can be customized based on contractual agreements and the organization’s control environment and risk profile.

Who can perform a SOC audit? 

Independent and qualified professionals or firms typically perform a SOC audit. The specific individuals or entities that can perform a SOC audit include:

  1.   Certified Public Accountants (CPAs): CPAs who are licensed and have expertise in auditing and assurance services are commonly engaged to perform SOC audits. They must have the requisite knowledge and training to conduct these assessments.
  2.   CPA Firms: Many organizations hire licensed CPA firms or audit firms with certified public accountants to conduct SOC audits. These firms often have specialized teams or departments focusing on auditing and assurance services, including SOC reports.
  3.   Certified Information Systems Auditors (CISAs): CISAs certified by ISACA (Information Systems Audit and Control Association) are qualified to perform IT-related audits, including SOC audits. They have expertise in information systems, security, and control assessments.
  4.   Other Qualified Professionals: While CPAs and CISAs often conduct SOC audits. Other qualified professionals with relevant expertise and certifications in auditing and information security may also perform these assessments, depending on the specific needs and requirements of the engagement.

It’s important to note that SOC audits require an objective and independent assessment of an organization’s controls. The professionals or firms performing the audit should not have a direct financial interest in the organization being audited to maintain objectivity and impartiality. Additionally, the selection of the auditor should be based on their experience, qualifications, and expertise in the relevant area of the audit, whether it’s security, availability, processing integrity, confidentiality, or privacy. The choice of auditor should align with the type of SOC report and the specific needs and expectations of the organization and its stakeholders.

What’s the timeline of the SOC 2 audit process? 

The timeline of the SOC 2 audit process can vary depending on several factors, including the complexity of an organization’s control environment, the scope of the audit, the readiness of the organization, and the availability of the audit team. However, a typical SOC 2 audit process follows a general timeline, which can be broken down into several key stages:

Pre-Engagement Preparation:

  •   Preliminary discussions: The process starts with initial discussions between the organization and the audit firm to define the audit’s scope, objectives, and expectations. This is where you may complete a readiness assessment.
  •   Engagement letter: Both parties sign an engagement letter that outlines the terms, responsibilities, and expectations for the audit engagement.

Planning and Scoping:

  •   Planning phase: The audit team and the organization work together to plan the audit. This includes defining the scope of the audit, identifying key controls to be assessed, and establishing the audit timeline.
  •   Risk assessment: The audit team assesses the risks associated with the control environment to determine the appropriate audit procedures.

Control Documentation and Evaluation:

  •   Control documentation: The organization documents its controls and provides the necessary evidence to the audit team.
  •   Control testing: The audit team tests the effectiveness of the controls through various testing methods, such as inquiry, observation, and examination of documentation.


  •   On-site testing (if necessary): The audit team may conduct on-site visits to observe control operations, interview staff, and gather additional evidence.
  •   Data collection: The audit team collects and reviews documentation, records, and evidence related to the controls.

Audit Report Preparation:

  •   Analysis and evaluation: The audit team evaluates the testing results and prepares findings, conclusions, and recommendations.
  •   Drafting the SOC 2 report: The audit team drafts the SOC 2 report, which includes the description of the system, the results of control testing, and any identified issues or exceptions.

Review and Approval:

  •   Management review: The draft report is typically reviewed and approved by the organization’s management team to ensure accuracy and completeness.
  •   Finalization of the report: Any necessary revisions are made to the report and finalized for issuance.

Report Issuance:

  •   Delivery of the report: The finalized SOC 2 report is issued to the organization, and copies may be provided to relevant stakeholders or clients.

The overall timeline can vary, but a SOC 2 audit generally takes several months to complete, with the organization and audit team working closely together throughout the process. It’s essential for the organization to be well-prepared, with proper documentation and evidence readily available to expedite the audit. The specific duration and timing of each phase of the audit will depend on the organization’s readiness and the complexity of the control environment being assessed.

ZenGRC is Designed to Help Businesses Remain SOC 2 Compliant

ZenGRC is a purpose-built platform designed to assist businesses in maintaining SOC 2 compliance effortlessly. The importance of robust controls and data security cannot be overstated in an increasingly complex and regulated business environment. ZenGRC simplifies the process of managing, monitoring, and demonstrating compliance with the stringent requirements of SOC 2, allowing organizations to focus on their core operations with confidence. With its intuitive interface and powerful features, ZenGRC streamlines the documentation of controls, tracks their effectiveness, and helps identify and address vulnerabilities. By leveraging ZenGRC, businesses can proactively ensure the security and privacy of sensitive data while efficiently navigating the SOC 2 compliance landscape.